EMS Proceedings and Other Publications

How Live is Real-Time ?

Kerry L. Hagan

Kerry L. Hagan, Digital Media and Arts Research Centre, University of Limerick, Ireland


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This paper is predicated on the argument that real-time computer-generated music exists on a spectrum of ‘liveness’. First, a brief discussion of liveness situates the question of liveness in real-time computer music. Then, comparing terminology for liveness in real-time computer music characterizes the issues involved. Finally, several musical examples delineate the liveness spectrum in question.

EMS14 Proceedings